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In countries ravaged by widespread violence, the trauma does not end when the guns fall silent. On the contrary, atrocities have cast a long shadow in places such as the Balkans, where brutal massacres, mass rapes, and ethnic cleansing were regular features of war; in Rwanda, where a devastating genocide killed hundreds of thousands of people; and in Sierra Leone, where the civil war was marked by forced recruitment of child soldiers, rapes and murders, and the gruesome mutilation of civilians. In Afghanistan, Iraq, East Timor, and many other societies, severe abuses have also left deep pain and trauma in their wake.

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38 Geo. J. Int'l L. 251-322