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The U.S. refugee resettlement program, was the first refugee protection casualty of the terrorist attacks. American officials perceived resettlement as being particularly vulnerable to security problems. That was not the case with the other major U.S. refugee protection program, the asylum system. That system was effectively revamped in 1995 to address a variety of abuses, in part connected to individuals involved in the 1993 World Trade Center bombing. Yet, even though official attention did not focus on asylum, subtle, significant changes have occurred. This article delineates and assesses these changes by closely examining data and developments at all levels of the asylum system. These more subtle changes cumulatively call into question how robust the system truly is today. Finally, this study calls for major changes to improve the protection of those refugees who manage to reach the United States without government assistance.

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36 Colum. Hum. Rts. L. Rev. 323-364 (2005)